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R - THE ST.CLAIR ARMOURY

[From Burke's Peerage and Nisbet's Heraldry]

ARMS OF DOMINION

ORKNEY (Earldom of) - Azure [blue background] a ship at anchor, oars in saltire [crossed diagonally] and sails furled, within a double tressure [border] flory counterflory [alternate fleurs-de-lys], or [gold].

CAITHNESS (Earldom of) - Azure [blue background] a ship under sail or [gold], the sails argent [silver]

ARMS OF THE LINEAGE

ST.CLAIR (Rosslyn in 13th and 14th centuries) - Argent [silver background], a cross engrailed, sable [black].

ST.CLAIR (Henry II, Earl of Orkney, 1411) Quarterly - lst and 4th, a ragued cross for Roslin; 2nd and 3rd, Orkney, a galley of one mast, her sails up, cordages, and on her stern a head like to a goat's contourne [facing left]. No supporters.

(Egidia, Countess of Orkney, Lady of Nithsdale and the barony of Herbertshire, 10th September, 1425). - Quarterly - 1st, Orkney (3 masts); 2nd, Douglas; 3rd, Roslin; 4th, Nithsdale (the Lion of Galloway, facing towards the left)

(William, Earl of Orkney, 9th September, 1476) Quarterly - 1st and 4th, Orkney; 2nd and 3rd, Caithness. Upon the tout a ragued cross, Roslin. Supporters, two grifons; about the scutcheon, Sigillum Will. Comitis Orchadiae et Cathaniae Dominii de Sancto Claro.

SINCLAIR (The Lords Sinclair, Barons of Ravenscraig) Quarterly - 1st and 4th. Orkney; 2nd and 3rd, Caithness; over all an escutcheon argent [silver], charged with a cross engrailed sable [black], for Sinclair of Roslin. Crest - A swan with wings expanded proper [natural colour], argent [silver] ducally gorged [coronet around its neck] and chained or [gold]. Or sometimes they give for crest - A phoenix in a flume of fire. Supporters - Two gryphons proper [natural colour], armed and beaked or [gold]. Motto - Feight. (Esplin gives for crest - A griffin's head)

(Balgreggie) - As Lord Sinclair, with a crescent for difference

(Sainteclersholme, in Denmark) As the Lords Sinclair.

(William II St.Clair, Earl of Caithness, 1498) - On a seal couchy [suspended from top left corner] and quartered, 1st and 4th, Caithness; 2nd and 3rd, Nithsdale; and over all dividing the quarters Roslin; the shield was timbred with a helmet, ensigned with a flower-de-luce lor crest; supported on the dexter [right] by a griffin, on the sinister [left] by a lion, and as legend around the seal, "Sig. Willielmi, Comitis Cathaniae"

Esplin, Marchmont Herald, assigns as sinister [left] supporter, a mermaid combing her hair proper [natural colour]; and for crest, a demi-bear issuing out of a coronet: with motto - Commit thy work to God.

(George, Earl of Caithness 1529-83) Quarterly - 1st, Orkney; 2nd and 3rd, Nithsdale; 4th, Caithness; Roslin over all dividing the quarters. Motto - Comitt yi vark to God. Supporters - proper [natural colour], two griffons. Crest - A pelican feeding her young.

(Murkle) - As the last, with the cross differenced with a rose.

(Freswick and Rattar) - As the Earl of Caithness, within a bordure chequy or [gold] and gules [red]. Crest - A cross pattee within a circle of stars argent [silver] Motto - Via crucis, via lucis. The Freswicks acquired Dunbeath and are sometimes so styled.

(Dunbeath, Baronet, 1704) - Quarterly, as Earl of Caithness, within a bordure indented gules [red] Crest - A man displaying a banner proper [natural colour] Motto - Te duce gloriamur.

(Stemster) - As Dunbeath within a bordure invecked gules [red] Same crest and motto.

(Barrock as recorded 1757, succeeded to Dunbeath baronetcy 1842) - Quarterly, as Earl of Caithness, within a bordure ermine Crest - A cock proper [natural colour] Motto - Fidelitas.

(Dun) - Argent [silver background] a cross engrailed sable [black] within a bordure of the second charged with 8 plates. Crest - A man on horseback proper [natural colour] Motto - Promptus ad certamen.

(Lawrence Sinclair, cadet of Dun, 1672) - Argent [silver background] a cross engrailed sable [black] within a bordure wavy of the second charged with six stars of the first. Crest - A demi-man, holding in one hand a sea-chart, in the other a pair of pencils, all proper [natural colour] Motto - Sic rectius progredior.

(Forss, cadet of Dun) - Argent [silver background], a cross engrailed sable [black] within a bordure of the second, charged with eight plates. Crest - A man on horseback proper [natural colour] Motto - Promptus ad certamen.

(Stirkoke) - Quarterly, as Earl of Caithness, within a bordure compony [checked] gules [red] and or [gold]. Crest - A naked arm issuing out of a cloud, grasping a small sword, with another lying by, all proper [natural colour] Motto - Ille [me] vincit ego mereo.

(Ulbster, Baronet 1786} - As recorded 1678 - Quarterly, as Earl of Caithness, within a bordure compony [checked] sable [black] and argent [silver] Crest - A star issuing out of a cloud proper [natural colour] Motto - Ad aspera virtus. As recorded 1778 - Quarterly, as Earl of Caithness, with the engrailed cross quarterly argent [silver] and sable [black] all within a bordure quarterly or [gold] and gules [red], the last charged with three stars of the first. Crest - A star of six points waved argent [silver]. Supporters - Two red deer proper [natural colour] Mottoes - Ad astra virtus; and J'aime la meilleur.

(Harpsdale, cadet of Ulbster, 1750) Argent [silver background] a cross engrailed on the outer side and invecked on the inner sable [black] within a bordure compony [checked] of the second and first. Crest - An arrow and a branch of palm in saltire [crossed diagonally] proper [natural colour] Motto - Detur forti palma.

(Brims, successors to Ulbster) - Same arms, etc.

(Thomas, son of William Sinclair, merchant in Thurso, descendant of Caithness 1672) - Argent [silver background], a cross engrailed sable [black] between two mullets [stars], azure [blue] Motto - Fear God and live.

(John Sinclair, Writer [lawyer] in Edinburgh, descendant of Caithness, 1672) - Argent [silver background], a cross engrailed between two mascles [diamonds] in chief sable [black]. Motto - Crux det salutem.

(Staverton Court, Gloucester) - Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Orkney; 2nd and 3rd, Caithness; over all an escutcheon argent [silver] charged with Roslin. Crest - A phoenix in flames proper [natural colour]; over it the device, Renasce piu gloriosa. Motto - Fight.

(Sir James Sinclair of Oldbarr, baronet) - Argent [silver background], a cross engrailed quarterly sable [black] and gules [red] in the dexter [right] canton [top corner], the badge of knight-baronet. Crest - (An otter issuing out of the wreath) a demi-otter issuant. Motto - Cuocumque ferar.

(Sir William de Sancto Claro, about 1296) From a seal with shield on which is a cross engrailed in a centre of rounded tracery, and in each of the three compartments a boar's head couped with the legend, "S. Willelmi de Sco.Claro Militis."

(Longformacus, Baronet, 1664) - Argent [silver background] a cross engrailed gules [red]. Crest - A cock with open bill and wings expanded proper [natural colour], having a broken chain or [gold] about his neck. Motto - Vincula temno. These arms were subsequenty borne quarterly - 1st and 4th, Longformacus; 2nd and 3rd, three stars of the first for Towers of Innerleith.

(Stevenston, descendants of Longformacus, Baronet, 1636) Originally - Argent [silver background] on a cross engrailed gules [red] five bezants [coins], or [gold]. As recorded in 1767, in consequence of an entail by the Earl of Caithness to bear the name and arms of Sinclair of Murkle. Quarterly, as Earl of Caithness (the engrailed cross being blazoned quarterly argent [silver] and sable [black]) with a crescent argent in the centre. Crest - A griffin's head erased proper [natural colour] Supporters - Two griffins per fess [band across centre] or [gold] and gules [red], armed and langued azure [blue]. Motto - Candide sed caute.

(Roslin, post 1476) - Manuscript of Sir David Lyndsay assign Roslin arms with a mullet for difference.

Nisbet saw the seal of Sir Oliver St.Clair to a document of 1481, and it had only a cross engrailed. Hay's Genalogie (about 1700) assigns the Roslins, Argent [silver background], a cross engrailed sable [black]. Supporters - Dexter [right] Ane Mermaiden and ane Griffon on the Senistre; ane Helmet befitting his quality; above which is a Dove argent [silver], becked and membred, gules [red]. Motto - Credo. The Mermaid has a comb in the right hand, and in the left a branch of some sea wrack. In a charter of 1523 Hay adds: Sir William St.Clair's seal was red upon white wax. A Ragued Cross, and again the like in 1571. As recorded 1672, Argent [silver background] a cross engrailed sable [black]. Crest - A dove proper [natural colour] Motto - Credo.

(Deskford, 1420) - As Roslin.

(E. Sinclair, of Essenquoy - Carving from an oak pew in St.Magnus' Cathedral, about 1630) 1st and 4th, a galley; 2nd, three escallops; 3rd, a crown between three mullets, over all dividing the quarters, a cross engrailed.

(Sinclair of Rapness, Westray, 1676, - from tombstone in choir of St.Mary's Kirk, Pierowall, Westray) Quarterly - 1st, Orkney; 2nd and 3rd, Nithsdale; 4th, Caithness; over all, dividing the quarters, a cross engrailed sable.

(Sinclair of Houss, Shetland) - Argent [silver background], on a cross engrailed sable [black] a man's heart gules [red], and in the dexter [right] chief a crescent. Crest - a winged heart.

(Sinclair of Quendale, Shetland, as quartered on the tombstone of Rev. John Gaudie, Archdeacon of Shetland) - Engrailed cross and galley of the Sinclairs with a mullet or star in the other quarters.

(Sinclair of Brugh, Shetland) Quarterly - 1st and 4th, argent [silver background], a cross engrailed sable [black]; 2nd and 3rd, a mullet [star] between three inescutcheons. Mottoes - "Remember to die, and after that to live eternally"; and "In earth nothing containeth, and man is but a shadow".

(Herdmanston, County Haddington) Argent [silver background] a cross engrailed azure [blue]. Crest - An eagle's head proper [natural colour] crowned or [gold]. Motto - Entends-toi.

(The St.Clairs of Herdmanston, Lords Sinclair) Quarterly - 1st and 4th, Orkney; 2nd and 3rd, Caithness; over all an escutcheon argent [silver] charged with a cross engrailed sable [black] for Sinclair. Crest - A swan argent [silver] ducally gorged [coronet around its neck] and chained or [gold]. Supporters - Two gryphons proper [natural colour] armed and beaked or [gold]. Motto - Fight.

(James St.Clair, younger son of Lord Sinclair, as recorded 1735). Quarterly - 1st and 4th, a cross engrailed sable [black], in the dexter [right] canton [top corner] a cock gules [red]; 2nd, Orkney; 3rd, Caithness. Crest - A swan proper [natural colour] having a ducal collar and chain or [gold]. Motto - Fight and faith.

(Blanse, Haddington 16th century) Quarterly - 1st and 4th, Argent [silver] a cross engrailed azure [blue]: 2nd and 3rd, or [gold] 3 martlets gules [red] for Gourley.

(Earlston) - Arms as Herdmanston.

(Northrig and Morain) - Arms as the last.

DENMARK

. (Saintclersholme) - As the Lords Sinclair of Ravenscraig.

SWEDEN

(Number 444 in the House of Nobles, descended from Frans Sinclaire, colonel in the Swedish service and naturalised as Swedish nobleman in 1649. Family extinct 1683) Quarterly - lst, Orkney; 2nd and 3rd, Nithsdale; 4th, Caithness. Crest - A cock. (Number 626, descended from David Sinclair, came to Sweden 1651,and was naturalised as Swedish noble 1655, and fell as Colonel at Warszawa 1656. Family extinct 1803) Quarterly - a. and d., Nithsdale; b., Orkney; c., Caithness; the escutcheon divided by a cross "engrelee" with a white rose in the middle.

(Number 965, descended from Anders Sinclair, Swedish musketeer 1635, and later became colonel; naturalised as Swedish nobleman 1680, barons 1766, counts 1771) - Arms: Quarterly - a. and d., Orkney; b. and c., springing hound. Crest - An armigerous arm.

(Counts Sinclair - Number 95 from grandson of the last) Quarterly - a., Orkney; b. and c., Nithsdale; d., Caithness; escutcheon of pretence with a cross "engrelee". Crest - A cock. Supporters - Two hounds. Motto - Via crucis via lucis.

ENGLAND

  1. St.Clere [Suffolk] or [gold background], a lion rampant [upright] gules [red].
  2. St.Clere [Suffolk] or [gold background], a lion rampant [upright], tail forked gules [red], collared argent [silver].
  3. St.Clere [Suffolk] or [gold background], a lion rampant [upright], tail forked and nowed [knotted] gules [red], collared argent [silver].
  4. St.Clere [Dorset] argent [silver background] a lion rampant gules [red], in a border sable [black], crusally [scattered with crosses] or [gold].
  5. St.Clere [Dorset or [gold background], a lion rampant gules [red], collared argent [silver].
  6. St.Clere [Essex) gules [red background], a fesse [band] between three lions' heads erased [torn] or [gold].
  7. Seyncle gules [red background], a fesse [band] between three lions' heads erased [torn] or [gold].
  8. Seyncler gules [red background], a fesse [band] between three lions' heads erased [torn] argent [silver].
  9. St.Clere [Cornwall and Essex] on a canton [top corner] gules [red], a lion passant [walking with right paw raised] argent [silver]
  10. St.Clere [Cornwall and Essex] on a canton [top corner] gules [red], a lion passant [walking with right paw raised] argent [silver].
  11. St.Clere [Cornwall and Essex] or [gold background], a lion rampant [upright] gules [red] within a bordure sable [black].
  12. St.Clere [Cornwall and Essex] or [gold background], a lion rampant [upright] within a bordure sable [black], charged with crosses crosslet of the field.
  13. St.Clere [Cornwall] or [gold background], a lion rampant gules [red], tail forked collared of the field.
  14. St.Cler or [gold background], a lion rampant [upright] gules [red], with in a bordure sable [black], charged with eight bezants [coins]
  15. St.Clere [Cornwall and Essex] azure [blue background], a sun in its glory, or [gold].
  16. St.Cleere azure [blue background], a sun in his glory.
  17. St.Clere azure [blue background], a sun in its glory, or [gold].
  18. St.Clere [Devon] per pale [vertical stripes] or [gold] and azure [blue], the sun in his beams counterchanged
  19. St.Clere [Sussex] azure [blue background], the sun in splendour, or [gold].
  20. St.Clere [Tidwell, Devon] per pale [vertical stripes] or [gold] and azure [blue] a sun counterchanged.
  21. St.Clere [Oxford] azure [blue background], the sun in splendour or [gold].
    Crest - A ram statant [standing] argent [silver] horned or [gold].
  22. St.Clere azure [blue background], three suns, or [gold], two and one.
  23. St.Clere azure [blue background], three suns within a bordure engrailed or [gold].
  24. St.Clere azure [blue background], three suns within a bordure engrailed sable [black].
  25. St.Clere azure [blue background], three suns, a border engrailed or [gold].
  26. St.Clere azure [blue background], on a chevron argent [silver] between three suns or [gold], as many mullets [starts] pierced sable [black].
  27. Sonclere or St.Clere [Devon] per pale [vertical stripes] or [gold] and azure [blue], three suns counterchanged.
  28. Sonnclere azure [blue background], on a chevron argent [silver] between 3 suns or [gold], as many mullets pierced gules [red].
  29. Sonneclere per pale [vertical stripes] azure [blue] and or [gold], three suns counterchanged
  30. St.Clere or [gold background], two bars gules [red].
    Crest - A fox courant proper [natural colour]
  31. St.Clere azure [blue background], a star of sixteen points or [gold].
  32. St.Clere gules [red background], a fesse [band] between three boars' heads argent [silver].
  33. St.Clere or St.Cleere argent [silver background], a saltire [diagonal cross] sable [black].
  34. Sinclair argent [silver background], on a cross sable [black] three crescents in fesse [band] or [gold].
  35. St.Clere argent [silver background], a cross engrailed sable [black] voided [hole in centre] of the field.
  36. (George Sinclair, M.A., Notts. 1775) Caithness arms, impaling a chevron between three roses, gules [red], and on a chief as many mullets [stars] of the first.

MARCH

- The "Sinclair March" will be found in the Scots' Expedition to Norway in 1612.

WAR CRY

- In 1333 the "cri de guerre" of Thomas of Rosslyn was "A Rosslyn"

BADGES

- Clover and whin.

TARTANS

- There are two. Of these the old green one is the true lineage tartan as worn at Flodden Field, and the red or full-dress is of modern origin, having been designed early this century by the then Countess of Caithness and Lady Sinclair of Ulbster. There should be a third tartan for the "St.Clairs of the Isles".

SAINTS' DAYS

CADENCY DISTICTIONS - Arms are thus differenced: The eldest son during life of father carries on his shield a label or file. Other sons are distinguished thus: 2nd, a crescent; 3rd, a mullet [star]; 4th, a martlet [bird]; 5th, an annulet; 6th, a fleur-de-lys; 7th, a rose; 8th, a cross-moline; 9th, an octofoil or double quatrefoil. Unaffiliated descendants could use a Thor's hammer for difference.

The sun in glory may be a punning allusion to sun-glare, which has almost the same sound (idem sonans), as St.Clair, and the three boars' heads in the seal of 1292 may be similarly accounted for as sanglier = St.Clair.

All persons descended from an armigerous ancestor are entitled to bear arms; but if there is no proof of descent from such, or from a Grantee, then the person desiring to acquire the right must become a Grantee himself. In Scotland it is necessary to matriculate, but as Orkney and Shetland are entitled to their own laws, registration has not been exacted in those parts until recent centuries. Arms paternal and hereditary are those transmitted from the first possessor to his heirs; the son being a gentleman of second coat-armour; the grandson a gentleman of blood; and the great grandson a gentleman of ancestry. Seize-quartiers require that the great great grandparentage should have been armigerous.

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